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vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1 Scene from Rogaland Photo : University Museum , Oslo 2 Helgafell Photo : Gudmund Hannesson, Iceland 3 Thdrsmork Photo : Gudmund Hannesson, Iceland 4 Thingvellir Photo : Gudmund Hannesson, Iceland 5 Burial mounds at Uppsala Photo: AT A 6 Church of Borgund Photo : University Museum, Oslo 7 Carved head of man Photo : University Museum, Oslo 8-1 1 Animal heads from the Oseberg ship-burial Photos : University Museum, Oslo 12 Image of female figure Photo : National Museum, Denmark 13 Image of a man from Rallinge Photo : AT A 14 Miniature figure from Iceland Photo : National Museum, Iceland 15 Bronze image probably of Th6r Photo: National Museum, Iceland 16 Image, supposedly of Thor’s hammer Photo : National Museum, Iceland 1 7 Thdr’s hammer Photo : A TA 18 Crucifix from Birka Photo : AT A 1 g Bedpost from ship-grave of Gokstad Photo: University Museum, Oslo 20 Animal head from the Scheldt Photo : British Museum 21 Rune stone from Altuna Photo: AT A 22 Carved stone from Hunnestad Photo : AT A 23 Rune stone from Sonder-Kirkeby Photo : National Museum, Denmark 24-7 Picture stones from Gotland Photos : A TA 28 Rune stone from Eggjum Photo : University Museum, Bergen 29 Rune stone from Ledberg Photo : A TA 30 Rune stone from Rok Photo : A TA vn LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 31 Tapestry from the Oseberg grave Photo : University Museum , Oslo 32 Rune stone from Ramsundsberget Photo : AT A 33-4 Wood-carvings from church of Hylestad Photos : University Museum, Oslo 35 Wood-carving from Austad Photo: University Museum, Oslo 36 Panel or cart from Oseberg grave Photo : University Museum, Oslo 37 Panel on cart from Oseberg grave Photo : University Museum, Oslo 38 Cross slab from Isle of Man Photo : Manx Museum and National Trust 39 Wood-carving from churches of Umes Photo : University Museum , Oslo 40 Reconstructed grave Photo : National Museum, Iceland 41 Grave objects from Ketilsstadir Photo : National Museum, Iceland 42 Handle-seating of bucket from Oseberg grave Photo: University Museum Oslo 43 Gold foil from Rogaland Photo : University Museum, Bergen 44 Gundestrup bowl Photo : National Museum, Denmark 45 The Oseberg ship Photo : University Museum, Oslo 46 Gokstad burial chamber Photo : University Museum, Oslo 47 The Oseberg cart Photo : University Museum, Oslo 48 The Dejbjerg cart Photo : National Museum, Denmark 49 Bucket from the Oseberg grave Photo : University Museum, Oslo viii PREFACE Many years of experience as a teacher have shown me how strong is the interest in the pagan religion of the north, although no survey of it has been published in English for many years. II AUTHORS NOTE In Old Norse Ip has the value of th unvoiced ; 6 has that of th voiced. The asterisk is used to show that the form of the word is hypothetical or reconstructed. Most of the screenplay is focused, however, on the "normal" routine in the establishment, boys versus staff, the rebellion itself and its consequences are shown in a limited time and space (I would have liked to know what happened to the revolting boys, and how the usual living was restored).Nevertheless, Kongen av Bastøy is a strong drama, giving food for thought long after the credits disappear. I have had to content myself with mentioning only a small part of this literature, and that to which I am especially indebted. The literature of this subject in other languages is enormous and consists, for the most part, of monographs, often published in learned journals. The boys daily, sadistic regime is run by the guards and the principal who bestow both mental and physical abuse on them.
One day a new boy, Erling (17), arrives with his own agenda; how to escape from the island.
I am indebted to scholars, not only for their published works, but also for advice and for the long discussions which I have had with them.
In quite another way the studies of the late Magnus Olsen, who has investigated Scandinavian place-names in the light of ancient literature, have been no less im- portant.
T8 1975] 293' -0948 75-5003 ISBN 0-8371-7420-1 Vx V‘~W'- / \ * 2551069268 * Filozoficka fakulta Univerzity Karlovy v Praze Originally published in 1964 by Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York Copyright © 1964 by E. Reprinted in 1975 by Greenwood Press A division of Congressional Information Service, Inc., 88 Post Road West, Westport, Connecticut 06881 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 CONTENTS PREFACE ix I THE SOURCES I Introductory — Old Norse Poetry — Histories and Sagas — Snorri Sturluson — Saxo Grammaticus II OBINN 35 God of Poetry — Lord of the Gallows — God of War — Father of Gods and Men — ( 5 dinn and his Animals — Odinn’s Names — Odinn’s Eye— The Cult of Odinn — Woden-Wotan III THOR 75 Thdr and the Serpent— Thdr and the Giants — Thdr’s Ham- mer and his Goats — The Worship of Thor— Thdr in the Viking Colonies — Thdr-Thunor — Conclusion IV BALDR 106 The West Norse Sources — Saxo — The Character of Baldr and his Cult — Continental and English Tradition V LOKI 126 VI HEIMDALL 147 VII THE VANIR 156 The War of the JSsir and Vanir — Njord — F r eyr-F rddi-N er- thus-Ing — Freyja VIII LESSER-KNOWN DEITIES 180 Tyr — UI 1 — Bragi — Idunn — Gefjun — Frigg and others IX THE DIVINE KINGS 190 X THE DIVINE HEROES 196 Ermanaric, Sigurd and the Burgundians — Starkad — Harald Wartooth — Hadding XI GUARDIAN SPIRITS 221 The Disir — Fylgja and Hamingja — Elves, Earth-Spirits, Dwarfs v CONTENTS XII TEMPLES AND OBJECTS OF WORSHIP 236 XIII SACRIFICE 2 5 i XIV GODLESS MEN s6 3 XV DEATH s6 9 XVI THE BEGINNING OF THE WORLD AND ITS END 275 ABBREVIATIONS 286 NOTES 287 BIBLIOGRAPHY 321 INDEX 33 1 |!
Turville-Petre Reprinted with the permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. de Vries, Altgermanische Religions- geschichte 1, 1956, 108 ff; further O.
Dumezil, to which reference will frequently be made in the following pages.